Greenhouse Gas Management
It is largely accepted amongst the scientific community that global warming is closely linked to the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Greenhouse gas emissions linked directly and indirectly to uses of energy in wine production, CO2 emissions from fermentation and CO2 sparging contribute to global warming. It should be noted that CO2 fixation within the vineyard system requires consideration in determining the overall carbon balance between the winery and vineyard. Notwithstanding the outcomes of such calculations, reducing CO2 emissions through use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency measures contributes to environmental sustainability. Monitoring CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions allows for better management and the implementation of reduction strategies.