Post-fermentation operations

Filtration should not be too severe as this will affect macromolecules that act as valuable surfactants.

Tartrate stabilisation is very important as the precipitation of crystals in the final wine can cause gushing. The increase in alcohol from the second fermentation will increase tartrate instability thus the level of alcohol should be increased in samples of base wine prior to carrying out stability tests.

Protein stability is not so important, as proteolytic enzymes and mannoproteins are released during yeast autolysis. Note that the use of bentonite will reduce foam quality

Fining agents such as carbon, PVPP, Gelatin / tannin, gelatin / keiselsol & casein can be used to modify colour & flavour (especially phenolics).

The production of non-vintage Champagne involves the blending (or assemblage) of the several vintages and varieties to achieve a consistency / house style.